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Some authors use the Cournot oligopoly model of quantity setting to model imperfect competition in black markets (e.g., Chiu et al. 1998; Poret, 2003, 2009; Jacobsson and Naranjo, 2009). In contrast to the monopolistic competition model, consumers view the goods sold by different sellers as perfectly substitutable. On the supply side, sellers exercise market power and raise their profits by limiting the quantities they put on the market. The restricted quantities drive the price up, raising profits for all sellers. As opposed to the model of monopolistic competition, in which sellers choose a price for their goods and the quantity sold is determined by demand, a Cournot seller chooses an amount of product to put on the market and the price (common to all goods) is determined from inverse market demand for the total quantity produced. The notion of supply elasticity is meaningless in a market in which firms exercise market power, because firms do not have a supply function. Therefore, the Nash equilibrium of the quantity-setting game must be found in order to derive a condition analogous to condition [12] for violence to rise with enforcement.


We may expect that enforcement against trafficking in menthol cigarettes would follow the pattern set by current practice aimed at smuggled tobacco products, which is to target suppliers. As with other illicit drug markets, nearly all enforcement effort is expended to disrupt supply in the market for illegal cigarettes. While possession of illegal cigarettes is also a crime for buyers, law-enforcement agencies such as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) typically focus their investigations on suppliers to reduce the incidence of organized crime (USDOJ OIG, 2009). Furthermore, Miron and Zwiebel (1995) argue that the supply-side effects of enforcement in illicit drug markets are likely to be much larger than the demand-side effects.

Since 2009, BCAN has awarded more than $5.5 million to promising scientists and research investigators across the country, and these awards demonstrate that the important work to improve the understanding of bladder cancer and its impact on patients and families continues.

A retrospective cohort study was performed of all hospitalized patients with a positive respiratory viral panel (RVP) for two or more viruses within 72 hours of admission at our institution from October 2009 to December 2009. We compared patients infected with one respiratory virus to those with respiratory viral co-infection.

Citation: Echenique IA, Chan PA, Chapin KC, Andrea SB, Fava JL, Mermel LA (2013) Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients with Respiratory Viral Co-Infection during the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60845.

A retrospective cohort study was performed of all individuals presenting to our hospital system between October 16, 2009 and December 1, 2009 who were hospitalized and had a positive respiratory viral panel (RVP, Luminex xTAG; Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX) within 72 hours of hospital admission. Clinical history, laboratory data, medications, radiographic imaging, and hospital course were reviewed as previously described [64]. Patients co-infected with two or more viruses, excluded from the initial study, were the focus of this analysis. We hypothesized that infection with certain combinations of respiratory viruses, particularly those with influenza pH1N1, would have worse outcomes than mono-infected patients.

A total of 1,192 inpatient RVP samples were performed from October 2009 to December 2009. Six hundred and fifteen were positive for a single respiratory virus, and 52 with two viruses. No samples showed infection with three or more viruses. Review of the 52 co-infected samples revealed two samples where detection of a second virus was initially indeterminate but later finalized as negative, and were therefore reclassified as mono-infection. Additionally, a separate co-infected patient was found to have two specimens. Therefore, 617 (51.8%) inpatients with a single agent identified in their RVP were compared to 49 (4.1%) patients with co-infection (see Table 1).

TAHLEQUAH - Northeastern State University in Tahlequah has announced those students named to the NSU Presidents and Deans Honor Roll for the Fall 2009 semester. Each semester, NSU recognizes students who have achieved superior academic performance by naming them to these honor rolls.

Odetta worked as a Sales Assistant at Credit Suisse from 2019-2021 and as a Research Assistant in Fundamental Strategies at Citadel from 2018-2019. From 2009-2018, Odetta worked as an Executive Assistant at Bank of America Merrill Lynch in Equities Division for the COO and Head of Global Trading as well Derivative Sales. Prior to that, Odetta started her career as a Legal Assistant at Kaye Scholer. Odetta is a graduate of the New York Paralegal School and earned a Liberal Arts Associates Degree from Kingsborough Community College.

Each workshop will be held on one day from September 22 to 25, 2009. For more details, please follow the links below, or contact the workshop Co-Chairs, Leonard Barolli ( and Wu-chun Feng (

Each Young Investigator Award provides a $50,000 grant that supports one year of early career bladder cancer research. Since 2009, BCAN has awarded more than $5.5 million to promising scientists and research investigators across the country and these awards demonstrate that the important work to improve the understanding of bladder cancer and its impact on patients and families continues. 041b061a72


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